Category Archives: Uncategorized

A Redaction Revealed

I’ll say at the start that this is about as obscure as it gets in spelunking fan history. Sometimes we have to ask ourselves if we’re exploring the fringe of the fringe of the fringe, and if anybody will care. We’re sitting in a metaphorical hole in an allegorical desert with an analogous toothbrush, attempting to discern if the illustrative grey lump we’re delicately brushing at is an ancient pot… or an ancestor’s bone… or… ya, crap… it’s just a rock. In this case, we think what we’ve unearthed is at least a pretty cool rock.

If you subscribed to Fantasy Magazine in 1934 and anxiously tore open the February issue that had just landed in your mailbox, you might have been excited to see that it included the next chapter of Cosmos, the ambitious serial novel orchestrated by Raymond A. Palmer and the staff. This installment was number nine of seventeen, penned by Abner J. Gelula. Menace of the Automoton revealed the rise of a race of domineering robots on Earth. It drew its heritage from Gelula’s first published story, Automoton, that appeared in the November 1931 issue of Amazing Stories.

This whole Cosmos thing was a pretty remarkable stunt for the mostly-teenaged editors to pull off. The relationships they established with professional writers through this effort would serve them well later in life. But getting it done wasn’t easy. They weren’t paying for the chapters, and some of the authors didn’t meet their commitments. For example, in the December 1933 issue of Science Fiction Digest, Palmer announced:

With this writing comes the sad word that Miles J. Breuer is confined to a sanatarium, with a nervous breakdown from overwork.  This means that the doctor, loved by all science fiction fans, will not be able to write his part for COSMOS.
This is certainly a great loss to the super-serial COSMOS, and to us, who love his writings, and we will have no time to replace him with a writer equaling him in reputation, but we have secured the services of Miss Rae Winters, who wrote “The Girl from Venus” and its sequel, which you will read in this magazine in the near future.  Miss Rae Winters shows extreme promise and I am sure she will develop into a fine writer.

“Miss Rae Winters” was unsurprisingly a pseudonym for Palmer himself. He’d stepped in to write the chapter that perhaps had driven Breuer to madness. A great risk and sacrifice! And a shameless self-promotion.

Anyway. If you read the rest of the February 1934 issue, you’d eventually come to page 30 and the regular column titled “The Editor Broadcasts.” This was ostensibly penned by Conrad H. Ruppert, but could have been written by anyone on the staff. Oddly, the first paragraph of the column was crudely redacted in black ink.

A mystery! Something had occurred between printing and publication that simply had to be erased. The few tantalizing letters visible at the end weren’t enough to give even a hint.

We’re delighted and relieved to report that this troubling gap in the historical record has now been plugged. In a copy of this issue bound into a volume for Palmer, we see a version of this page where the redaction is transparent enough to allow it to be read.

If you don’t want to squint, it says:

“For some unexplained reason Abner J. Gelula failed to send in his chapter to COSMOS. Repeated letters and postcards have brought forth no reply. We are very sorry that our readers must again be disappointed and trust that you will enjoy Wallace Wray Quitman’s offering, which is being introduced in place of the part originally scheduled for Mr. Gelula.”

We can only guess that the promised chapter arrived just in time to be printed separately and bound with the issue. We can also surmise the identity of “Wallace Wray Quitman.” If Palmer ever actually wrote the replacement chapter, it has likely been lost to history. If it turns up, we’ll be sure to share it.

You can read more than you’ve ever wanted to know about Cosmos at The Cosmos Project.

Coming soon from First Fandom Experience are facsimile volumes reprinting the full runs of Science Fiction Digest, Fantasy Magazine and the Cosmos inserts. You can read more about that here.

On Objectionable Material in Science Fiction History

First Fandom Experience is an archive wrapped in a story. Our goal with this project is to tell a complete and unbiased history of science fiction fandom, primarily using the original artifacts created by the pioneering fans of the 1920s-1940s. These artifacts are a product of their time and, uncensored, they reflect the attitudes and beliefs of the people who created them and the society in which they lived.

Science fiction is inherently progressive, and to a large degree so are its fans. However, there are in this history statements and views expressed by some fans that are objectionable. The period that we cover in this work is marked by racism, sexism, misogyny, anti-Semitism and other bigotries that were ignorant then — but sadly often tolerated — and are properly seen as offensive today. Recent attention has been given to this issue by Jeannette Ng in her acceptance speech for what is now called the Astounding Award for Best New Writer.

As historians, we make no attempt to shy away from or cover up these views, nor do we make any attempt to justify or rationalize them. They are part of the story. It’s beyond the scope of this project to address these issues generally, but we aim to discuss them openly as they relate to early fandom. We will do our best to contextualize manifestations as they present themselves, and we will dedicate space in the project to deeper exploration of relevant examples.

Above all, this is a conversation we want to keep going with our audience of interested fans and historians. We encourage anyone to connect with us about our coverage, or lack thereof, of these topics.

The Second Eastern Convention – February 1937

This post is work-in-progress. We’re developing this content for inclusion an upcoming volume of The Visual History of Science Fiction Fandom. Feedback and leads on additional material pertinent to the Second Eastern Con are much appreciated!

2nd Eastern Con – NYBISA announcement, January 1937

The second-ever “science fiction convention” in the United States occurred on February 21, 1937 in New York City. There is of course the endless debate about what really constituted a “convention” versus just a gathering of fans. The “First Eastern Con” occurred in October 1936 in Philadelphia. It was an informal afternoon attended by perhaps a dozen fans from the East Coast, from which there are no known printed artifacts. The idea for a more formal get-together in New York was hatched at that meeting.

The planned New York gathering claimed the lofty “convention” moniker and was organized by the core of the New York Branch of The International Scientific Association (NYBISA). This cadre — Donald A. Wollheim, John B. Michel, David A. Kyle and Fredrik G. Pohl — would play central roles in the drama and shenanigans surrounding science fiction clubs and confabs for the next several years.

The program for the convention is a small, delicate leaflet, elegant if terse.

Songs? Indeed, songs. As remembered by Robert A. Madle in a conversation with John L. Coker III:

“The ISA had a bunch of songs, and one went like this:

Oh, we’ll rally from the nuthouse,
We’ll gather from the cell,
Shouting an accolade to Gernsback. 
To cheer for dear old Wonder
And the good old SFL,
Shouting an accolade to Gernsback.
The SFL forever, let rockets light her way,
Shouting an accolade to Gernsback.
With C.D.H. to lead us
Through commentary hell,
Shouting an accolade to Gernsback.

Many of the ISA members hated anyone who was connected with Wonder Stories, including Charles D. Hornig.  There were a lot of other people that they had picturesque names for.  They referred to Forry Ackerman as Farwest J Sapperman, Sam Moskowitz as The Newark Neanderthal, James Taurasi was Il Duce of Flushing Flats, and The Philadelphia Science Fiction Society was known as the PSFS Hoodlums.”

Who was there on that somewhat musical day? We have one remarkable survival that gives us some evidence. The first issue of the fanzine Phantastique was produced by Burton duMont with a cover date of November 1936. The issue was actually distributed in January 1937, just in time for the convention. Our best guess is that someone brought a copy of this issue to the meeting and had it signed by many of the attendees.

2nd Eastern Con – signed Phantastique cover

This is the earliest collection of fan signatures that we’ve seen. Here are the names we’ve been able to decipher (top-to-bottom, left-to-right):

Arthur Leeds
Morris Chakamsky
Robert W. Lowndes
Conrad H. Ruppert
Charles D. Hornig X-ED (ex-editor?)
John J. Weir
Mort Weisinger
George R. Hahn (Curly)
Warren D. Woolsey
Willis Conover, Jr.
Richard Wilson, Jr.
John B. Michel
John V. Baltadonis
Walter Kubilius ISA
Robert A. Madle
Otto O. Binder
Julius Schwartz
Charles Schneeman
John V. Baltadonis (again)

Comparing this roster to the Second Eastern Convention attendee list from Fancyclopedia, there’s clear overlap and no obvious conflicts that would cause us to reconsider the origin of this piece. We’d be very interested to hear any other interpretations or evidence.

Sad to say, it appears that the “proposed NYBISA Science Fiction Motion Picture” was never produced.

Fortunately, Fans Are Also Collectors

Much of the history of fandom would have been lost long ago if many fans had not also been fanatical collectors. We see evidence of this everywhere in their writings from the 1930s. Almost every fanzine had a column for posting “wants” and offers to sell or trade for missing issues. Here are just a few examples of how fans stocked their libraries.

Forrest J Ackerman was notorious for the intensity of his collecting. Here we see a posting from Ackerman that appeared in The Brooklyn Daily Eagle from November 1, 1931. Forrest was just shy of his 15th birthday and lived in San Francisco, California.

How did young Forrest discover this obscure East Coast newspaper swap column? It seems his extended family was actively supporting his interests. See below from the November 8, 1931 issue of The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. (Thanks to Bill Mullins for digging up this letter.)

It didn’t take long for Ackerman to become known as a go-to person for other fans who hoped to find scarce items. Lester Anderson wrote to Forrest on April 24, 1933 with both an offer and a request.

Lester Anderson to Forrest J Ackerman, April 24, 1933

Reading and collecting science fiction wasn’t without controversy. Apparently one female fan felt the need to seek spousal permission before pursuing her interest.

Barbara Burbank to Forrest J Ackerman, May 29, 1934

Many fans strove to assemble complete sets of the professional science fiction magazines, and to preserve them. In the first issue of Morris Scott Dollens’ The Science Fiction Collector, the editor offered advice on binding magazines for inclusion in a library.

The Science Fiction Collector, v1n1, May 1936, page 14

The Science Fiction Collector from July 22, 1936 contained a fairly typical advertising section.

The Science Fiction Collector, v1n5, June 22, 1936, page 13

The publishers of fanzines also avidly followed and collected the work of their peers. Here Richard Wilson, Jr., notable for his long-running fanzine The Science Fiction News Letter, sought to fill gaps in his collection by tapping the usual suspect.

Richard Wilson, Jr. to Forrest J Ackerman, April 11, 1938

This led later in the 1930s to the creation of ‘zines fully dedicated to trading and collecting. Some were simple listings, such as Bob Tucker’s Science and Fantasy Advertiser. The first issue (titled The Science Fiction Advertiser) appeared in October 1938.

The care and dedication of these early collectors has made it possible for today’s fans to encounter the work of the earliest fans. One notable example: Walter A. Coslet of Helena, Montana. Coslet bought, sold and traded science fiction material of all types beginning in the early 1940s. The library he amassed has become a key resource for historians through the archival work of the Coslet-Sapienza Fantasy and Science Fiction Fanzine Collection held by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. From The Kay-Mar Trader of March, 1947, we can see some of Coslet’s offerings to his fellow fans. This copy appears to be annotated by its owner to highlight their haves and wants.

The Kay-Mar Trader, v2n1, March 1947, page 9

Whence Our Signature Pin?

The First Fandom Experience lapel pin has become our de facto logo. We needed a logo for our Windy City launch. We had the pin. Lacking any further inspiration and running out of time, the pin was it.

We didn’t invent the pin. It’s derived from a very relevant piece of science fiction fan history. Props go to Hugo Gernsback, Charles D. Hornig, and the staff of Wonder Stories in 1934 when the Science Fiction League was launched. The distinctive spaceship design was used as the League’s insignia…

…and appeared on the club’s membership pin. This original from the 1930s – a rare survival – is in the collection of Doug Ellis.

The pin was offered to members for 35 cents – close to $7 in today’s money.

In the depths of the Great Depression, we’re not sure that anyone ever sprang for the $2.50 solid gold version.

The original image for the insignia was based on an iconic Frank R. Paul cover from Science Wonder Quarterly, Fall 1929.

Our adapted facsimile was designed by Alison Scott of Stow Shirts,
Walthamstow, London. Alison was great to work with and also facilitated the manufacturing. You can see her reproduction of the original pin in her Etsy store.

We award FFE pins to friends, family and good folks who help us to spread the word about our project. Look for us at a science fiction, fantasy, or comic book convention soon!

Indexing the SF fanzines of the 1930s

By indexing, I mean here both a subject index and a ‘story’ index of the fanzines.  From Pavlat & Evans, and other sources, we have an index of what zines were published when by whom, in how many issues, including the paper page size, the reproduction method, the number of pages, and often notes of oddities (like skipped numbers/lost issues, etc.) for a given title.  For me, the index I am trying to create will support the work of a historian.  The intent being that if you were going to write about the PSFS and one of things you wanted was to read all the pages in which say, Bob Madle, wrote, or was mentioned, you could easily do so by referring to the index (getting legible copies would be the next problem).

So, people as subjects terms are easy, club names are easy, and most bits of fiction and poems are easy to index.  The news columns that name drop 3 dozen people are tedious, but easy.  What I am now finding harder, since I am getting wiser so very slowly, is that making sub-subject terms that are useful is harder and will now require me to go back over and read everything again.  Why do I think I need sub-terms? Well, because looking at series of 7 dozen page numbers after, say the name of someone like Wollheim or Ackerman, means you might be looking for quite a while unless you have it broken down by a sub-term.

So, an example, from The Science Fiction News Letter. Volume 1, Number 2 (December 11, 1937), page 1.


      We are not, as we thought, pioneers. At a meeting of the New York Fantasy Association last Sunday, Donald A. Wollheim, took great delight in informing us that the first weekly science fiction publication was concocted by George Gordon Clark, of BROOKLYN REPORTER fame (or infamy, whichever). This unnamed whatnot ran for eight weeks or thereabouts.

So, my terms for this are New York Fantasy Association; Wollheim, Donald A.; Clark, George Gordon; and The Brooklyn Reporter.  I’m not sure how I would sub-term this for DAW, and now that I look at this specifically, I’m not sure it really matters, but I think if I was going to, I would now sub-term DAW with “New York Fantasy Association” (maybe with December 5, 1937).

Note: DAW was incorrect. There were 5 issues of The Brooklyn Reporter and the first 4 were close to been published a month apart with the final fifth issue showing up 5 months late.r (I have recently seen all 5 issues).

So, other than perhaps overthinking things, the other things that make this a bit harder than a usual indexing project is

  1. The texts are not in a digital, textual form.  Often when one is indexing something for a book you can merely use a fancy tool and select the text and index it.  The texts I am working from are generally scans of very old hecto’d fanzines that were perhaps hardly readable when they were printed (they did the best they could with what they had). If I didn’t have ‘zoom’, and as needed, the ability to fiddle with contrast etc., I wouldn’t be able to read them at all (and we are so not doing to be trying to transcribe over 10,000 pages of material).
  2. How do I say this nicely. These are not professional magazines. They were done, quite often, by teenagers, doing the best they can. So, the structure, and often the content, is kind of juvenile. Quite a few of the initial issues of a title are little more than a hi guys, I hope you like my effort, please send stuff in, I’m so happy to be here!, is it to early to try to sell ad space? So, not necessarily a whole lot there. It is the attempt and artifact that is important, as the content isn’t necessarily very notable.
  3. Pseudonyms.  How SF loves its pseudonyms!  In fanzines, as in prozines, many stories/articles could be by the same pen, but they made up pseudonyms to make it seem as if they were not.  I index them all. I’ll figure out some sort of notation to mark them as such…if I know they are a pseudonym.
  4. What do I care about, subject-wise? Well, I think I have decided I do not care about itemized listing of recent or upcoming prozines. All this info is available via ISFDB, FictionMags, or Galactic Central: Science Fiction. If the author said something beyond whether they liked it or not (even if was just a brief review) I would index it. I think I also decided I was not interested in indexing articles that are one paragraph long about ‘lava’. I’ll index the author, so we know they were active in the issue, but not ‘lava’.  I would of course index articles on ‘technocracy’ etc. Otherwise, I am trying to make as useful of an index as I can. I vaguely have a use case of, (but not by me), if someone wanted to update every relevant entry in the Fancyclopedia using the index and facsimiles of all the known-to-still-exist SF fanzines of the 1930s.

So what form will this index eventually take?  Not sure yet.  Certainly, it will help us write up bits of history. It will likely be used for bits of back-of-the book indexing. Perhaps we’ll consider printing a stand-alone index or putting it online for searching. Too early to tell yet (there are a lot a fanzines, a lot of history, and many interesting project to get side-tracked into!)

A Conversation with Erle M. Korshak

We had the honor of speaking with Erle M. Korshak, one of the original First Fans of science fiction, at the 2019 Windy City Pulp and Paper Convention. Korshak was a significant player in the fan community, having helped organize the second World Science Fiction Convention (“Chicon”) in 1940.

See a short video of our talk with Korshak below.

Serendipity! Whilst digging through a box of old fanzines at the Curious Book Shop booth (thanks, Ray Walsh), we found a nice copy of the 1940 Chicon Program Booklet. Erle was gracious enough to add his autograph.

Archaeology Chez Ellis

On April 10 and 11 Daniel, Kate and I are spending time with Doug Ellis and Deb Fulton at their home outside of Chicago. The Windy City convention starts tomorrow, but Doug has graciously agreed to let us spelunk his archive of correspondence and other material from the estate of Jack Darrow (nee Clifford Kornoelje). Darrow was one of the most active early fans and central to activity in Chicago in the late 1920s and 1930s. The letters he exchanged with Otto Binder, William Dellenback and others gives a great sense of what it was like to be a leading fan during those seminal years.

On this post we’ll highlight just a few of the unique items we found in these files. Much, much more to come as we have a chance to process and post.

Who are we and why are we doing this?

First Fandom Experience is a collaborative effort. It’s my privilege to introduce the people who make it possible.

My name is David Ritter and I live in Cambridge, Massachusetts. FFE is my second adventure in publishing related to science fiction in the 1930s. The first was The Cosmos Project. You can read more about my background there.

I encountered the somewhat legendary and quite peculiar round-robin novel Cosmos in my quest to find all of the original material written by E.E. “Doc” Smith. I blame Smith’s Lensman series as a primary instigator of my own fandom when I discovered it at (of course) age 12. Cosmos was orchestrated and published by a small cadre of science fiction fans who convinced an impressive set of professional writers to contribute. Smith wrote a chapter of the serial that was later re-published as a stand-alone story.

As my interest in fan history grew, I was fortunate to meet Dave Kurzman. Dave is a leading collector and dealer in science fiction ephemera. I’ll always thank him for many things, including his willingness to part with his copy of Weird Tales #2. I think he regrets it to this day. Through Dave I came into possession of a complete run of Science Fiction Digest and Fantasy Magazine, including all of the chapters of Cosmos.

The way Cosmos came together in the early 1930s is a microcosm of the overall phenomenon of organized fandom during that decade. The ambitious youngsters behind this grab-bag of a novel went on to found and largely dominate the science fiction genre for the next several decades. Their energy and optimism was infectious even as it reached across the intervening ninety years. My exploration of this era has been something of an obsession ever since. I submit re-typing all seventeen chapters of Cosmos as evidence.

Once The Cosmos Project was largely complete, I continued to explore the broader arc of fan history. This led me to what’s considered the canonical narrative of early fandom: The Immortal Storm by Sam Moskowitz. Moskowitz captured the stories of many of the key people and events of the early years from his own first-person experience and with his own distinctive perspective.

It was all well and good to read about all of the clubs, publications and gatherings that bootstrapped the science fiction industry. But it was also unsatisfying. I felt like I was reading a biography of Heinrich Schliemann, the archaeologist who discovered the ruins of the ancient city of Troy. I wanted to dig in the dirt myself, touch the very walls, walk the very sands where Achilles spilt the blood of Hector. Hence I started to seek out more of the original material created by folks who have come to be known as the “First Fans.”

Among many other places, this quest led me to the basement of Robert A. Madle in Rockville, Maryland. Bob was a prominent fan in the Philadelphia area beginning in the early 1930s and has since become a legendary collector and dealer in the field. I’m honored that he entrusted me to give a good home to his original copies of The Planet and The Time Traveller, seminal early fan publications without which any coverage of this era would be sorely incomplete.

Part of my commitment to Bob was the idea that I’d find ways to preserve and make these rare artifacts more widely available. At the time, there were only vague notions of how this might come about.

I’d been toying with the idea of creating a facsimile edition of Cosmos, patterned after the chapter inserts from its original publication. At the Windy City Pulp and Paper Convention in 2017, I kicked this idea around with Doug Ellis, the founder and organizer of the show. Doug is a prominent collector and publisher of several volumes of science fiction and pulp art. I also spoke with John L. Coker III, President and Archivist of the First Fandom organization. John has done more to preserve and honor the memories of the First Fans than anyone through his various writing and publishing projects. He had been a contributor to The Cosmos Project, educating me and providing great material highlighting the key role of Conrad H. Ruppert and his printing press. It was John who suggested that perhaps more of the original fanzines from the early days could be brought out as facsimiles. This was the inception of First Fandom Experience.

Initially, I imagined that full facsimile runs of the key fan publications from the 1930s might be produced. Thanks to Doug for convincing me that this was impractical, if not entirely insane. Over the next few months and through many discussions, the alternate concept of a “visual history” of the period gradually formed.

At about this same time, I began to understand that anything approaching a robust visual treatment of early fandom would be a pretty massive job, and that trying to do it as a part-time hobby would likely take many years. So, for better or worse I suggested to my middle son Daniel that he quit his job and join the project on a full-time basis. When we look back on this in the future, I hope he thanks me for this. Time will tell.

Nepotism aside, Daniel represents a core component of the intended audience for our work: younger science fiction fans who so far have no notion that organized fandom existed in the dark past, that many of the masters of the genre started as fans way back then, and that their generation did not, in fact, invent cosplay. Kids these days should be interested in this history, darn it!

Nepotism further aside, Daniel brings a terrific base of relevant experience to this work. After graduating from Champlain College with a degree in writing, he served for five years as a writer, editor, staff lead and operations manager for a web content company. I’m delighted that he’s embraced the role of Managing Editor.

John L. Coker III has continued to be a committed member of the FFE team. His personal knowledge and interactions with the First Fans offer our most direct connection to these remarkable — and sometimes problematic — people. I’m sad that my interest came only after most of these pioneers had passed. John knew them, chronicled their lives and captured their memories. The interviews, notes and photographs he’s contributed are the most vital part of bringing this story to life. With his kind permission, the artifacts his contributions will feature prominently in FFE material.

Through John, we reached out to the First Fandom community to let them know about FFE. One of the immediate respondents was Sam McDonald. Sam brings deep knowledge and intense enthusiasm regarding early fanzines to the project. His own massive collection fanzine will play an important role in our publications. But Sam’s most remarkable contribution to FFE is the work he’s done and continues to identify sources for fan material, perform archaeology on a wide range of library and private collections, and catalog and index the content. His first blog post here reflects the richness and detail of his work, for which we are deeply grateful. He is the most extraordinary maker of lists that I have ever encountered.

In addition to his valuable advice, Doug Ellis has made available his extensive archive of correspondence and other material related to early fandom in Chicago. The active community there spawned such prominent fans as Raymond A. Palmer, Jack Darrow, Walter Dennis and Erle M. Korshak.

Also representing the younger generation of fans on the FFE team is Kate Baxter. Kate is an accomplished technical professional whose perspective helps to connect our work to the interests of today’s attendees at Comic Con, and burns in the woods, and other gatherings where old folks like me would possibly be welcome but would always feel a little awkward. Kate drives sourcing of material from a variety of library archives, helps to manage our finances and will run our “shipping department” should such a thing become needed. We can hope!

To Daniel, John, Sam, Doug and Kate — tremendous thanks for getting this ambitious project started and underway. It would not be possible without an exceptional team and I can’t imagine a better one. To others, please let us know if you’d like to contribute as well. The FAQ provides an overview of the project. This site will hopefully grow over time to reflect the fascinating experiences of the early fans who gave first breath to the vast networks of science fiction communities that we know today.

What are the SF fanzines of the 1930s?

To take this project forward, we needed to make a list of the fanzines and other fannish publications and ephemera of the 1930s, find out if it still exists in a library or private collection, gather it all in for digitization, AND then read it, categorize it, etcetera.

So, Step 1, make a list.  To do this we start by using the fine work by those fan historians who came before us.  I will, at this time, only consider indexes and resources that cover the 1930s.

  1. Science Fiction Bibliography by the Science Fiction Syndicate (D. R. Welch and William Crawford)
  2. SF Check-List by Robert and Frances Swisher
  3. Fanzine Index from Bob Pavlat and Bill Evans
  4. British Fanzine Bibliography by Rob Hansen
  5. Various fan indexes
  6. Library Finding aids and catalog holdings
  7. Auction listings and ads in fanzines and other sources
  8. FAPA fanzines

I’ll take each of those above, in turn:

1) Science Fiction Bibliography by the Science Fiction Syndicate

This was published in 1935 and is generally attributed to have been done by D. R. Welch and William Crawford(1). It is 12 pages, printed, 8.5 x 5.25.   Reputedly, this is the first bibliography ever published in the field of science fiction and fantasy literature.    In brief, it has 3 pages on pamphlets & booklets, 5 on fan magazines (not yet called fanzines)(2) (including Marvel Tales and Unusual Stories)(3), and 1 and a bit on ‘minor publications’(4), and 2 pages of items for sale.  From the tone describing these ‘minor publications’, such as ‘There is absolutely no reason why anyone should waste time collecting this item’ (RE: The Planetoid), I am not surprised that we hear little of D. R. Welch, as who would then order from him? One item that was more interesting to me, since I knew almost nothing of it, regarding the single issue of Radiagram,was this sentence ‘No stranger collection of scientific fallacies and misinformation has ever been put into print – an unbelievable revelation of callow thinking and juvenile misunderstandings.’ So, this was the first science fiction bibliography, though not very useful or interesting. Noted in the Pavlat & Evans’ Fanzine Index on p. 97.

Science Fiction Bibliography cover

2) SF Check-List by Robert and Frances Swisher

This SF Checklist is an 8 volume, hecto’d index of fanzines through about Fall 1942. It appears to me that although the first volume was published (to FAPA) in October 1938 and the final volume was published in November 1942, they did not catalog up the first volume, but included any-and-all information they had up to the time they typed it up. For the most part I don’t think that the index was made up issues ‘cataloged in hand’ but was made up of notes submitted or noted from fanzines. Thus, the Checklist reads more like a series of notes rather than a firm catalogue.  I don’t think that this Checklist has been studied all that much because, 1) it is hecto’d and very hard to read. Some pages very nearly too faded to read. I think one might have to have at least 2-3 copies to successfully parse all pages of the 8 volumes. (though scanning at hi-res and zooming and fiddling with the contrast does help overcome these issues) 2) It seems to me to be rather rare. I’m not sure if it was distributed outside of FAPA with its 50-copy minimum. 3) We presume that Pavlat & Evans mined it, and included, from it, all notes of value. The Swisher SF Checklist is very important and useful because it formed the foundation of the next index.
The SF Check-List is noted in the Pavlat & Evans Fanzine Index on p. 105. 

SF Checklist. No. 3

3) Fanzine Index from Bob Pavlat and Bill Evans

The most useful index we have is the Fanzine Index from Bob Pavlat and Bill Evans (which I will now call Pavlat & Evans or P&E), for the period of the 1930’s.   This is a core a resource because not only does it build upon Robert D. Swisher’s SF Checklist (acknowledged very clearly in the introduction of the P&E index) , it is also now conveniently very accessible because Peggy Rae (Pavlat) Sapienza has granted permission to Ron Brown to scan it and those scans are made available at   as a 13MB PDF: Pavlat & Evans Fanzine Index.   This index was done in five volumes, published from December 1952-November 1959 and covers fanzines through December 1952 (generally including those marked ‘Winter 1952-53’). This index, other than now being online, was made more readily available because it was reprinted by Harold Palmer Piser.  I believe the copy at eFanzines is the Piser version because it looks like his ‘a’ was bent a bit low (and Pavlat’s was not). If you compare them, except for doing typewriter forensics, they might be exactly the same excepting the different paper. (and also, I think most Piser versions were drilled or punched for putting into a 3-ring binder).  These, being mimeo, are much more readable, than the hecto’d Swisher SF Check-List.  The second volume notes that they were now being printed by Charles F. Derry (aka Chick).  We know that this index too lacks some information (P&E note as such in the first paragraph of the introduction to the first volume) , which is understandable, since many of those 1-2 page newszines came out weekly. P&E also have notes of reference giving clues to fanzines not seen or reasonably confirmed directly by them. These notes tend to cover issues that were likely hand-copied, carbon copied, or were issued in very low numbers (<10).

Fanzine Index, Volume 1. P&E edition. 1938.
Fanzine Index, Piser edition. 1965
Ad for the Piser edition of the Fanzine Index

4) British Fanzine Bibliography by Rob Hansen

Hansen’s, bibliography, online at, is useful to confirm and add information for early British fanzines that was not known to P&E. Also, very useful if one is interested in just UK fanzines and you don’t want to parse through all of P&E).

5) Various fan indexes

A convenient list of various fanzine listing can be found from the not yet mentioned excellent website,  The FANAC: Fan History Project: (FANAC = Florida Association for Nucleation and Conventions). Their page FANAC Bibliographies & Collections ( lists most of the useful ones available on the Internet.  The two, other than the aforementioned, British Fanzine Bibliography, that were the most useful for investigations the 1930s, were Greg Pickergill’s Memory Hole (, and Joe Siclari’s checklist of his collection (, these two in particular  were more useful than the others because they include more of the early zines form the 1930s;

6) Library Finding aids and catalog holdings

The primary library fanzine holdings for 1930’s fanzines are also noted on the FANAC bibliography page. These being the M. Horvat Collection of Science Fiction Fanzines (at University of Iowa Libraries Special Collections) (

(Note that Iowa also has the Hevelin collection and although there is no finding aid yet, you can see some that they have scanned and put into the Iowa Digital library (, their DIY History for the Hevelin fanzines at, and their not-very-active Tumblr blog at

The holdings of the University of California Riverside Libraries Fanzine Collections (having the collections of Bruce Pelz , Terry Carr, and Rick Sneary).  Se their description page at

(To find listings you will need to see the library catalog from Hint: use advanced search and set the  “Subject (is exact)” to be  “Fan magazines” AND set the ‘Any field’ to be “From the Eaton Collection of Science Fiction and Fantasy”. You can then change the date ranges and sort by title etc.)One last one, is the Coslet-Sapienza Fantasy and Science Fiction Fanzine Collection  at the Albin O. Kuhn Library & Gallery, University of Maryland, Baltimore County ( I think they have the most issues of fanzines from the 1930s of any of the University collections mentioned above.  I prefer to use the  PDF finding aid. I search for ‘193’ and that, barring a few false hits, lets one step through it finding all the issues from the 1930’s.

7) Auction listings and ads in fanzines and other sources

I have slowly, over about 20 years, gained some valuable information from browsing auction listings and ads found in the various fanzines.  For auction listings they mostly help to confirm data, but sometimes also, if they include images, let one see the dates for a kind of catalog-in-hand. Some auction listings on ebay, done by knowledgeable fans can even give you helpful information not found in the fanzine on for sale, such as what other fanzines they did, maybe things about pseudonyms, variations on a given issues etc.

Another item used to find very esoteric and low run fanzines from New Zealand is the book Timeless Sands: A History of Science Fiction Fandom in New Zealand (compiled by Nigel W. Rowe).

8) FAPA fanzines

The fanzines, and other ephemera, like FAPA business (elections, members, dues etc.), in FAPA mailings have their own special problems. The 2 issues are: there were generally only, at most, 50 copies, and 2) the mailings were bundles, and individual items could easily become lost.

Two items especially useful for noting these early FAPA fanzines are: Larry Shaw’s FAPA Index, which overs those items included in FAPA mailings through #28 (June 1944). And Bob Pavlat’s FAPA Book: The Mailings. 6 volumes, covering mailings #1-96.

Shaw’s FAPA Index (1944)
Pavlat’s FAPA Book (cover, volume 1)


(1) See:  Fancyclopedia 3:

Science Fiction Bibliography

                 D. R. Welch

(2) See:  Fancyclopedia 3:  Fanzine

“Louis Russell Chauvenet coined “fanzine” in the October 1940 issue of his own fanzine, Detours, …”

(3) Marvel Tales and Unusual Stories I consider to be more prozines, or at east attempts at being a prozine.